The first modern arithmetic curriculum (beginning with addition, then subtraction, multiplication and division) emerged in schools of reckoning in Italy in the 1300s. Extending along trade routes, these methods were designed to be used in trade. From kindergarten to high school, mathematics education in U.S. public schools has historically varied from state to state and often even varies considerably within individual states.

With the recent adoption of the Common Core Standards by 45 states, mathematics content across the country is getting closer to each grade level. With the adoption of reform standards and the development of federally funded curricula during the 1990s, mathematics education became a hotly debated topic. The reformist movement met with opposition from traditionalists outside the field of mathematical education research, who called for a return to the traditional direct teaching of standard arithmetic methods. As a result, following the initial adoption of standards-based curricula, some schools and districts supplemented or replaced standards-based curricula in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Wu found numerous mathematical errors and lack of clarity and cohesion in the rejected standards, in contrast to the overall robustness and clarity of the adopted standards. The immediate cause of the mathematical wars of the 90s was the introduction and widespread distribution of new mathematics textbooks with radically reduced content and a shortage of basic skills. Secondly, since mathematics provides fundamental knowledge and skills for other school subjects, such as science, art, economics, etc. In 1915, Kilpatrick was asked by the Secondary Education Reorganization Commission of the National Education Association to chair a committee to study the problem of mathematics teaching in secondary schools.

From 1995 to 1998, TERC's Research in Numbers, Data and Space and Connected Mathematics pilot programs were gradually expanded in District 2.While there was no evidence that the decline in mathematical skills was caused by constructivist mathematics programs in schools, school mathematics seemed to be getting worse. rather than improving as the NCTM reform program expands. Subsequently, SMSG appointed a 26-member advisory committee and a 45-member drafting group that included 21 college and university mathematicians, as well as 21 high school mathematics teachers and supervisors. The Noyce Foundation was actively involved in promoting NCTM-aligned mathematics curricula in Massachusetts and parts of California.

The founding of the Cambridge Analytical Society served to persuade that institution to adopt broader mathematical studies. The leaders of mathematics education supported the educational constructivism of the writings of Jean Piaget and Lev Semenovich Vygotsky. El Paso Collaborative for Academic Excellence created a confidential student assessment questionnaire to monitor the teaching methods used in high school mathematics classrooms at all public high schools in El Paso. For example, an NSF-sponsored organization created in 1997 called K-12 Mathematics Curriculum Center, had a mission statement to support school districts in building an effective mathematics education program using curriculum materials developed in response to the Plan National Council of Teachers of mathematics studies and assessment standards for school mathematics.

Political struggles and political changes in mathematics education in the 1980s, and especially in the 1990s, are the main themes of this chapter. It gradually grew and attracted its members and leadership, those who held positions much more subject to the influence and pressure of professional reform movements. The school attached to the great York Minster was one of the few institutions in England that taught mathematics. Smith reported that there had been no meeting of the mathematics committee and that Kilpatrick was the sole author of the report.